Gunners looked for ways to make the most of this technology.
Rafale – a Storm of Steel
It was during this era that the barrage was born. Barrage — the French word for dam — was a more careful application of the deadly force of artillery fire. It consisted of walls of exploding shells, carefully targeted to prevent the enemy taking defensive positions. First came the rafale, as it had during the early days of the war, still failing in its task of softening up the defenders. Then, while the attackers began their advance, a barrage was directed at the enemy trenches to prevent them emerging and taking up firing positions.
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At the same time, another barrage was directed further back, to prevent reinforcements from approaching. This approach was first used in Allied offensives in the Champagne and Artois regions in autumn But despite the application of the new barrage technique, the attack was another bloody failure, with little ground gained at huge cost. The barrage continued to develop.
Artillery of World War I
It required more skill from gunners, and as they improved their craft they found new ways to apply it. First used on 1 July at the Battle of the Somme, the creeping barrage was a bombardment that fell just in front of the infantry assault, advancing at marching speed to provide cover and rip apart any defenders who stood in their way. Leaping barrages began by bombarding the target trenches, then moved to attack other positions, then returned to firing at the target trenches, hoping to catch the defenders as they emerged from cover.
Barrage failed at the Somme, the Germans emerging safely from cover to defend their trenches. Improved techniques had some success in at Arras and Passchendaele, but even then the gains were tactical, not strategic. Resources to the following titles can be found at www. What are VitalSource eBooks? For Instructors Request Inspection Copy. We provide complimentary e-inspection copies of primary textbooks to instructors considering our books for course adoption.
Life in the Trenches of World War I - HISTORY
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Close Preview. Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Summary In the popular imagination, the battle fields of the Western Front were dominated by the machine gun. The Greater War pp Cite as. The First World War was the first truly industrial war.
Life in the Trenches of World War I
Nearly five years of continuous fighting made the economies of the belligerents crucial to success on the battlefield, as they strove to keep front lines supplied with the means to defend themselves and, occasionally, to attack. Due to the pivotal role of artillery in the conflict, the need to produce sufficient artillery munitions was especially important.
In the First World War, artillery came to the fore as the most devastating weapon available, responsible for 67 per cent of deaths, compared with 15 per cent in the Franco-Prussian war of — and just 11 per cent in the Russo-Japanese war of — Unable to display preview.
Related Artillery in the Great War
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